Teacher education/training refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school.
… The teacher is engaged, not simply in the training of individuals, but in the formation of the proper social life.
Every teacher should realize the dignity of his/her calling; that he/she is a social servant set apart for the maintenance of proper social order and the securing of the right social growth.
As the world has changed, so has the school, and so has what we mean by teaching and by learning. The teacher-student relationship is far more complex and demanding than ever before. The implication of this more diversified role for the teacher is what impelled a new view of the process of teacher education and training. Thus, teacher education is seen as a continuous process, beginning with a phase of initial training and continuing throughout the teacher’s professional life throughout regular and sustained periods of in-service training. Maintaining the view that a teacher must remain a learner during the scope of their service is mandatory.
Teacher education generally includes four elements: improving the general educational background of the trainee teachers; increasing their knowledge and understanding of the subjects they are to teach; understanding of children and learning; and the development of practical skills and competences.
A forum for teacher training that aims at:
- Individual professional competence
- Collective, uniform institutional excellence
- Conduct Need-based and Problem-focused Pedagogical Training
- Introduction and Familiarization of ALS System
The Institute conducts teacher-training focusing on the following areas:
- Pre-service Teacher-Training
A prospective teacher may have academic knowledge but he/she may not have adequate training in teaching skills to complement that knowledge. Training of such an individual is essential to acquaint him/her with the new teaching techniques and the dynamics of school classroom culture. In other words, training is:
- Highlighting the Socio-Economic Significance of Teaching as Profession
- Developing New Skills by Going Through Formal Training Workshops
- Orienting New Entrants to the ALS System.
- In-service Teachers Training
All teachers who are performing satisfactorily still need sharpening of teaching skills. In case the performance of a serving teacher is consistently lack-lustre, it becomes essential to go for training.
Why Teachers Training is important?
Teacher education is essential, as it is directly link to teacher quality and to student outcomes.Teachers are the backbone of education. They play an important role in molding our country’s future. Therefore, teacher’s education should be regarded as a serious issue and should give preference.
Actually teachers have to fight against pressures from multiple fronts. They have to cope with unending parental expectations, pressures from the management of the school, handling misbehavior students and above all since they are teachers, children future is in their hands so they had to do their best in making children learn.
Challenges in the Classroom
Teachers are often faced with the challenge of instructing students at various levels of academic progress. Knowing how to connect with all students regardless of their aptitude level is critical to ensuring that the educational material is effectively disseminated to each student, on each level. Ongoing teacher training can be a vital tool in ensuring their success.
Maintaining Academic Standards
Armed with the knowledge of how to instruct students with different capacities for learning, teachers can more readily maintain academic requirements necessary to comply with district and state standards.
Advantages for Students
While it’s important not to overlook the needs of students who may be lagging behind, it is also important that students who excel are not held back from reaching their full potential. Achieving this balance in the classroom can help teachers become more effective at fostering the academic progress of their students.
Philosophy of Education
The philosophy of education seeks to study the process and discipline of education in order to understand how it works, improve its methods and perfect its applications in society. The philosophy of education ultimately seeks to improve education and its systems and methods for the betterment of humanity. Ideally, it informs and raises the quality of curriculum, teaching methods and the overall educational experience.
Teachers have a tremendous responsibility not only to prepare students for their lives ahead, but also to contribute to the evolution of knowledge for future generations. Ultimately, these philosophies can effectively further the evolution of the human race. Each generation educates the next, and as the torch is passed we refine our methods. Our knowledge base grows richer and more accurate. Teachers set the tone in the classroom, and the performance of students often rises (or falls) to match the expectations of the educator. A clearly defined philosophy of education is something that every teacher should cultivate, and it can contribute to overall quality of life for individuals going forward.
Children learn best in a nurturing, child-initiated play-based environment that fosters self-confidence, trust, creativity, autonomy and acceptance of individual differences. Each classroom at the centre will implement developmentally appropriate practices, achieving curriculum goals in the context of a caring community of learners in which all children can develop.
- Teachers respect, value, and accept children and treat them with dignity at all times.
- Teachers make it a priority to know each child well.
- Teachers create an intellectually engaging, responsive environment to promote each child’s development and learning.
- Teachers make plans to enable children to attain key curriculum goals across various disciplines, such as language arts, mathematics, social studies, science, art, music, physical education, and health.
- Teachers develop, refine, and use teaching strategies to enhance children’s learning and development.
Careful lesson planning can help to insure the successful running of your courses. Incorporating best practices in teaching and learning into the design process will help students meet learning objectives for your course.
There are many different styles of lesson planning, but most contain similar elements, based on what is known about promoting student learning:
- 3-5 lesson objectives
- Content to be covered
- Resources and materials needed (including technology)
- Out of class work and assessment
Benefits of lesson planning
- Incorporate good teaching practices in every lesson.
- Efficiently prepare for the next time you offer the course.
- Share teaching ideas with your colleagues
Methods of Teaching
A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used for instruction. Commonly used teaching methods may include class participation, demonstration, recitation, memorization, or combinations of these. The choice of teaching method or methods to be used depends largely on the information or skill that is being taught, and it may also be influenced by the aptitude and enthusiasm of the students.
Methods of instruction
Explaining, or lecturing, is the process of teaching by giving spoken explanations of the subject that is to be learned. Lecturing is often accompanied by visual aids to help students visualize an object or problem.
- Prepare your lecture a day before & if there will be any difficulty then ask section head/ branch head.
- Organize your information well about the topic
- Make sure your students are comfortable & ready to understand.
- Use illustrations & diagrams to help clarity
- Use examples which will make the topic interesting for students.
- Ask questions to students during lecture.
- Keep an eye contact with the students during the lecture.
- Try your best to clear student’s concept.
- Manage your lecture time.
- Use simple language or use easy words so that the student can easily understand.
- Move around during the lecture.
- Review main points at the end of the lecture.
- During English & Urdu reading lectures, underline difficult words for dictation & translate them into simple words.
- Develop communication skills to express yourself more clearly in the class.
- Must be able to provide meaningful learning opportunities for all students.
- Keep high expectations in your class.
- Establish a sharing and encouraging class environment.
- Maintain quality control of student work.
- Assess student’s prior knowledge.
- Understand and use a variety of instructional strategies to encourage student’s development of problem solving & performance skills.
- Setting H.W to promote lifelong learning.
- Always motivate weak students.
- Use open-ended questions in a discussion to encourage students to avoid yes/no answers and be more creative.
- Encourage students to ask questions after each activity.
- Put relevant, new vocabulary on the board as it comes up during class so that students can incorporate it into their own conversations
- Practice pronunciation so students can speak with more confidence
- Treat mistakes as a valuable resource from which students can learn.
- Take notes while monitoring so you can point out mistakes afterward.
- Don’t correct students while they’re trying to communicate ideas in case you discourage or intimidate them.
- Keep notes on student conversations in a formal notebook so you have a permanent record of the class’ performance.
- Discourage students from “cheating”.
- Pair weak or shy students with a good student to help them develop confidence.
Demonstrating is the process of teaching through examples or experiments. For example, a science teacher may teach an idea by performing an experiment for students. A demonstration may be used to prove a fact through a combination of visual evidence and associated reasoning.
Demonstrations are similar to written storytelling and examples in that they allow students to personally relate to the presented information. Memorization of a list of facts is a detached and impersonal experience, whereas the same information, conveyed through demonstration, becomes personally relatable. Demonstrations help to raise student interest and reinforce memory retention because they provide connections between facts and real-world applications of those facts. Lectures, on the other hand, are often geared more towards factual presentation than connective learning.
Brain based learning
Brain-based learning has been called a combination of brain science and common sense. Some people are incredulous when they hear the term “brain-based learning”. For them all learning and teaching is brain-based. However, advocates of brain-based teaching insist that there is a difference between “brain-compatible” education, and “brain-antagonistic” teaching practices and methods which can actually prevent learning. The brain’s vast intricacy needs specially designed brain-fitting and brain-compatible instructional settings and procedures.
Nowadays you need to consider the diverse strengths and needs of students in your classroom related to culture, language, learning ability, interests, and approach to learning.
Many teachers and parents agree that homework develops students’ initiative and responsibility and fulfils the expectations of students, parents, and the public. Studies generally have found homework assignments to be most helpful if they are carefully planned by the teachers and have direct meaning to students.
Collaboration allows students to actively participate in the learning process by talking with each other and listening to other points of view. Collaboration establishes a personal connection between students and the topic of study and it helps students think in a less personally biased way. Group projects and discussions are examples of this teaching method. Teachers may employ collaboration to assess student’s abilities to work as a team, leadership skills, or presentation abilities.
- Know school guidelines for discipline procedures
- Treat students with the same respect
- Begin class on time
- Be fair, positive and consistent.
- Provide a list of standards
- Keep your classroom orderly.
- Get to know your students.
- Let the students know you care.
- Keep your voice at a normal level.
- Give reasonable assignments.
- Be mobile, moving around the room as students work or respond to instruction.
- Avoid arguing with students.
- Don’t threaten or use sarcasm.
- Encourage good work, good responses and good behaviour.
- Keep rules simple. Establish as few classroom rules as possible, and keep them simple.
Children’s bad behaviour indicates underlying problems that need to be addressed. Teachers explore primary causes of specific misbehaviour and actions that can be taken to remedy these causes. Children need to be taught so that they understand and follow social rules. But it is not necessary, and can be quite damaging, to hit or otherwise abuse a student. Evidence shows that girls and boys respond better to positive approaches, including negotiation and systems of rewards, rather than punishment through verbal, physical, or emotional abuse.
Assessment & Observation
Classroom observation is another form of ongoing assessment. Most teachers can “read” their students; observing when they are bored, frustrated, excited, motivated, etc. As a teacher picks up these cues, she or he can adjust the instruction accordingly.
It is also beneficial for teachers to make observational notes. These notes serve to document and describe student learning relative to concept development, reading, social interaction, communication skills, etc.
Advantages of Observation
- opportunity to share learning expectations with students in advance
- encouragement of student self-monitoring and self-assessment
- clarification of the desired learning outcomes to guide learning
- focus on the desired learning outcomes to guide teaching
- cuing of attention to the full range of relevant learning outcomes
- having available an explicit and standard recording format
- ease of recording of student performance characteristics
- structured means of providing feedback to students
Testing and Grading
Effort/participation—grade students on attempts at work, how will they contribute in class to discussions, activities, etc. If you are using this form of grading make sure to be explicit with your class about your expectations to make sure that you are being fair.
Completion—gives them credit for doing the work and turning it in. This will be especially helpful when dealing with homework and will help you get to bed on time!
Alternate—for example, if they complete an assignment have each student answer one question from it, if they get it right they get 100, if they miss they lose points and get another chance, etc.
Differentiated and student specific—Fair is not always equal. If you have a student who struggles in your content area or a student who excels and consistently finishes early, realize that you do not have to grade every student the same way. You can privately inform a student that you expect him or her to complete a certain amount of an assignment or complete it in a slightly different way. Every student should be able to succeed in your classroom so long as they are working their hardest.
What to Grade:
The goal of evaluating student work is to encourage students to continue learning, not to provide harsh feedback that decreases their intrinsic motivation.
Grade only on academic performance. It is important that you grade a student’s work on its merits, not on personality, or whether he or she talks in class or is constantly arriving late, for instance.
Time management is about using the time that you have available as productively as possible great time managers are organised & effective. They use their time well without getting carried away and becoming obsessive compulsive.
Maximise your instructional time
As a classroom teacher, you want to engage your students in productive learning time. This is time when your students are engaged in meaningful and appropriate work. The more productive learning time you have, the more your students will learn. The challenge, of course, is in creating a classroom that maximises that time.
To minimise lost time it is important to plan for smooth transitions between lessons. Transitions are those times during the day when you move from one activity to the next. Because students work at different paces and different levels, some may be able to make the transitions faster than others. Transition time often leaves openings for misbehaviour and disruptions. To avoid this it is important to make your expectations for transitions clear and establish routines for transition times.
Competencies, or more specifically professional competencies, have been selected as the central element of teacher training, in keeping with the new emphasis on professionalization. To cooperate with members of the teaching team in carrying out tasks involving the development and evaluation of the competencies targeted in the programs of study, taking into account the students concerned.
The personal development subject area
The personal development subject area covers the following subjects listed in the basic school regulation:
- Physical education and health
- Ethics and religious culture
- Moral education
Training schedule and scheme of work
The training schedule and scheme of work are the guidelines that define the structure and content of an academic training session. It maps out clearly how resources (e.g. books, equipment, time) and class activities (e.g. teacher-talk, group work, practicals, discussions) will be used to ensure that the learning aims and objectives of the course are met successfully. Training schedule and the scheme of work interpret the specification of the course and it can be used as a perfect guide through out the session to avoid misconduct and confusions. It is shared with the whole staff members before training sessions.
The training sessions are organized to develop academic, personal, communication skill’s grooming of our staff members. These sessions are planned according to the areas need improvement after analyzing through different criteria. The training feedback after these sessions can strengthen the effects of these sessions for future. The training feedback is used to develop an amazing change in the next training sessions where it is required.